Space waves are those waves which have very high frequencies. These waves can easily penetrate through atmosphere from transmitter end to the receiver end. These waves have the ability to travel to the troposphere after reflecting from the earth’s surface. These waves can also travel directly without reflection to the earth’s troposphere. This type of propagation is also known as Tropospherical Propagation.
If we talk about medium wave propagation . In the diagram the letter c describes the space wave propagation. Space wave propagation technique is used in very high frequency bands.
Examples of high frequency bands are given below: UHF, VHF etc. If we expect that some other wave propagation techniques can work at high frequency then we are wrong. At such large frequency ranges the other wave propagation techniques like ground wave propagation, sky wave propagation etc will not work.
Line of sight propagation is the other name given to Space wave propagation.
Now lets us talk about the limitations of Line of sight propagation
1. The range of these waves is only limited to the curvature of earth.
2. These waves follow line of sight propagation. , i.e. the propagation of waves is along the line of sight distance.
Now let us briefly describe that what line of sight distance is? In this both the receiver and sender end antennas are in sight to each other. In this case the only way to increase the transmission distance is to increase the height of the receiver as well as sender antennas. Television communication and radar communication used this type of propagation technique.
The range of frequency for television signals lies between 80 to 200MHz. These waves remain unaffected by the ionosphere of the earth. Ionosphere does not show any reflection in case of these waves. The Characteristic of wave propagation along the curvature of earth is also not possible in case of television signals. Geostationary satellites are used for this purpose. The television signals are reflected towards earth by these satellites
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